This totalitarian movement has established more than fifty tyrannies
Communism is, by far, the political movement that has established the most dictatorships throughout the history of humanity.
The more than 100 million deaths that communism caused, divided by countries
The persecution of scientists in communism: a fanatical repression that ended in a catastrophe
In this post you can see a list of the 62 communist dictatorships that have been established in the world since 1917, when the Bolsheviks carried out the coup that established the first communist dictatorship in Russia. Some of the dictatorships on the list still exist. More than 1.5 billion people, 20% of the human population, still live under communist dictatorships, the vast majority of them in single-party regimes.
The list includes countries that claim to be democratic, such as Venezuela, Nicaragua and Bolivia, but that in fact have governments of communist or pro-communist ideology that are violating human rights, that govern thanks to electoral fraud and that exercise power as dictatorships, violating human rights and carrying out repressive actions against the political opposition. Although their governments do not expressly identify themselves as communists, their actions correspond to the theses of this totalitarian movement and they receive support from the Cuban communist dictatorship.
In contrast to the list of communist dictatorships shown in this post, today only one expressly communist government is known that has coexisted with a democratic system: Nepal. That government has existed since 2017 and is currently a source of uncertainty for the future: will that country end up in the same directions as Bolivia, Nicaragua and Venezuela?
As additional information, I have ordered the continents chronologically by the implantation of communism in each of them.
- Albania. 1944-1992.
- Alsace-Lorraine. November 10-28, 1918. A short-lived communist dictatorship created after the abandonment of that region by German troops and until the arrival of French troops.
- Bavaria (Germany). April-May 1919.
- Belarus. 1994-present.
- Bremen (Germany). January-February 1919. A short-lived communist dictatorship that lasted only 25 days during the communist revolts in Germany at the end of the First World War.
- Bulgaria. 1944-1989.
- Czechoslovakia. 1945-1989.
- East Germany. 1945-1989.
- Estonia (Narva).1918-1919. It was a short-lived Bolshevik dictatorship established during the Estonian War of Independence.
- Finland. January-May 1918. A short-lived communist dictatorship established in the south of the country during the Finnish Civil War.
- Finland (Terijoki), 1939-1940. It was a puppet state of the USSR prior to the annexation of the Finnish territories invaded by the Soviets in the Winter War.
- Galitzia (Poland-Ukraine). July-September 1920. It was a short-lived communist dictatorship dissolved by the Polish Army.
- Hungary. March-August 1919.
- Hungary. 1945-1989.
- Latvia (1918-1920). A Bolshevik dictatorship that existed during the Estonian Civil War.
- Limerick (Ireland). April 15-27, 1919. A short-lived communist dictatorship that emerged during the Irish War of Independence.
- Lithuania-Belarus. February-July 1919. A short-lived communist dictatorship that was crushed by the Polish Army.
- Naissaar (Estonia). 1917-1918. It was a short-lived communist dictatorship created on that island near Tallinn and that lasted three months. It disappeared with the arrival of German troops.
- Poland. 1945-1989.
- Romania. 1947-1989.
- Russia / Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). 1917-1991.
- Saxony (Germany). 1918-1919. A short-lived communist dictatorship that only lasted four months during the communist revolts in Germany at the end of the First World War.
- Slovakia (Kassa). June 16-28, 1919. He was a short-lived puppet of the also short-lived Soviet Republic of Hungary, emerged from the invasion of southeastern Czechoslovakia by the Hungarian Red Army.
- Taurida (Crimea, Ukraine). March-April 1918. A short-lived Bolshevik dictatorship that disappeared after the arrival of German and Ukrainian troops.
- Transnistria (Moldova). 1990-present.
- Yugoslavia, 1945-1992.
- Afghanistan. 1978-1992.
- Bangladesh. 1975–1991.
- Birmania. 1962-1988.
- Cambodia (Prochinese Khmer Rouge). 1975-1979.
- Cambodia (Pro-Soviet government established by Vietnam). 1979-1992
- China. 1949-present.
- Guilan (Persia). 1920-1921. A puppet state of the USSR established by the Red Army after invading a northwestern province of present-day Iran.
- Hunan (China). September-October 1927. A short-lived communist dictatorship established by Mao Tsetung.
- Laos. 1975-present.
- Mongolia. 1921-1992.
- North Korea. 1945-present.
- North Vietnam / Vietnam. 1945-present.
- Tannu Tuva, 1921-1944. Puppet state of the USSR.
- South Yemen. 1969-1990.
- Wa State (Myanmar). 1989-present. These are two territories of that country that in fact function as an independent country with a one-party communist dictatorship.
- Bolivia. 2006-2019, 2020-present.
- Chile. June-September 1932.
- Cuba. 1959-present.
- Grenada. 1979-1983.
- Nicaragua. 1979-1990.
- Nicaragua. 2018-present.
- Venezuela. 1999-present.
- Angola. 1975-1991.
- Benin. 1975-1990.
- Burkina Faso. 1983-1987.
- Cape Verde. 1975-1992.
- Congo. 1969-1992.
- Ethiopia. 1974-1991.
- Ghana. 1960-1966.
- Madagascar, 1975-1992.
- Mali. 1960-1968.
- Mozambique. 1975-1992.
- Seychelles, 1977-1992.
- Somalia, 1969-1991.
- Tanzania. 1964-1995.
- Zanzibar and Pemba. January-April 1964.
NOTES: The socialist dictatorships of Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Eritrea, Guinea, Equatorial Guinea, Iraq, Libya, Mauritania, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Syria, Tunisia and Zambia have not been included in the list because they are not specifically communist dictatorships, but not Marxist socialist nationalists, although many of those states received support from the USSR.
Nor have I included republican Spain between 1936 and 1939, because although the republican side during the Spanish Civil War behaved like a dictatorship in which the communists had great influence (a Popular Army with communist symbols was established and a huge portrait of Stalin in the Puerta de Alcalá in Madrid), control over that area was also exercised by socialists, anarchists and separatists.